The furthest galaxy known so far is EGS-ZS8-1, which is 13.1 billion light years from Earth.
That means that the galaxy is very close to the beginning of the Big Bang in reference to time.
In the photo above, EGS-ZS8-1 is displayed via the Hubble Telescope. What’s interesting in this image is that every object shown here is also a galaxy.
Time and light are consistent entities that help scientists determine the distance of objects in outer space.
For example, since light is a constant (186,000 miles / second), by use of mathematical equations, astronomers can determine the approximate distance an object is from Earth. One method is by using the spectroscopic redshift, more specifically, it is called the cosmological redshift.
Since light bends in the universe, the further the object is from Earth, the more there will be a shift in the electromagnetic spectrum towards the red end. Many distant objects show a shifting towards the red spectrum and EGS-ZS8-1 has shown the greatest shift of them all.
Using these methods, the distance of this galaxy was confirmed by the WM Kirk observatory in California and as a result, we could get a very good picture of what early galaxies looked like near the beginning of the Big Bang, which are quite different from the more mature galaxies we see today.
Since the universe is thought to be 13.8 billion years old , we would be looking at a galaxy that is only 700 million years away from the beginning of time. A baby compared to some other galaxies that are only 5 and 10 billion years old.
Finding this young entity, which is in the constellation Bootes, scientist can compute many variables that can bring our knowledge one step closer to determining how it all began. And what a miracle that would be!